Circumtropical. Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada and Bermuda to Uruguay (Ref. 7251, 26938). Eastern Central Atlantic: Madeira Island (Ref. 74541).
- Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene 1990 Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
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