Body uniformly blackish or dark blackish brown (Ref. 27363). Lateral line an open groove, bridged by scales at intervals. Swim bladder present. Juveniles: long cephalic and preopercular spine; big eye; teeth on jaws small, multiserial on premaxilaries; no teeth on palatine and vomer; gill rakers long and slender. Adult: no cephalic and preopercular spines; eye small; gill rakers tooth-like in groups on bony bases.
- Whitehead, P.J.P., M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) 1986 Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vols. I-III:1473 p. (Ref. 232) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=232&speccode=36
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