Life history characteristics for the family specify that this group is oviparous, with distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205). Minimum depth from Ref. 58018.
- Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.) 2003 Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of March 2003. Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in March 2003. (Ref. 46206) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=46206&speccode=60302
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