Western Central Atlantic: off the eastern coast of the USA, near Hudson Canyon, and in the eastern Gulf of Mexico.
- McEachran, J.D. and J.D. Fechhelm 1998 Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico. Volume 1: Myxiniformes to Gasterosteiformes. University of Texas Press, Austin. 1112p. (Ref. 37039) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=37039&speccode=2308
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