South America: Lake Maracaibo and Orinoco River basin, and rivers of the northwestern portion of Guyana.
- Lucena, C.A.S. and N.A. Menezes 2003 Subfamily Characinae (Characins, tetras). p. 200-208. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36811)
No one has provided updates yet.