Atlantic Ocean. Warm water; eastern and western coasts. Replaced by Scomber japonicus in the Indo-Pacific.
- Collette, B.B. 2003 Scombridae. Mackerels and tunas. p. 1836-1857. In K.E. Carpenter (ed.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Vol. 3: Bony fishes part 2 (Opistognathidae to Molidae), sea turtles and marine mammals. (Ref. 52976) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=52976&speccode=54736
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