Found on edge of rocky areas, muddy bottom and areas of high sediment load; jetty piles and moorings; often associated with sponges or sea squirts or attached to man-made objects; moves to deeper waters in winter. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). This species manifested evidence of genetically monogamous character in seahorses (Ref. 59213). Site fidelity is observed during breeding season (Ref. 59213). Length type refers to height (= TL - head length) (Ref. 30915).
- Lourie, S.A., A.C.J. Vincent and H.J. Hall 1999 Seahorses: an identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, London. 214 p. (Ref. 30915)
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