Western Central Pacific: Malaysia, Singapore, Viet Nam and Philippines. Confused with Hippocampus kuda. International trade is monitored through a licensing system (CITES II, since 5.15.04) and a minimum size of 10 cm applies.
- Lourie, S.A., A.C.J. Vincent and H.J. Hall 1999 Seahorses: an identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, London. 214 p. (Ref. 30915) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=30915&speccode=13100