South America: Essequibo and Demarara River basins; Amazon River basin and tributaries between Tapajós and Tefé rivers; upper Amazon River basin and Orinoco River basin.
- Lucena, C.A.S. and N.A. Menezes 2003 Subfamily Characinae (Characins, tetras). p. 200-208. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36811)
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