reef-associated; oceano-estuarine (Ref. 4233); freshwater; brackish; marine; depth range 0 - 140 m (Ref. 36484), usually 0 - 20 m (Ref. 40849)
- Gasparini, J.L. and S.R. Floeter 2001 The shore fishes of Trindade Island, western South Atlantic. J. Nat. Hist. 35:1639-1656. (Ref. 40849)
- Smith-Vaniz, W.F. 1986 Carangidae. p. 815-844. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. vol. 2. (Ref. 4233)
- Willoughby, S., J.D. Neilson and C. Taylor 1999 The depth distribution of exploited reef fish populations off the south and west coasts of Barbados. Proc. Gulf Caribb. Fish Inst. 45:57-68. (Ref. 36484)
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