Occurs in oceanic and coastal waters, commonly found in shallow water, with larger individuals up to 350 m depth (Ref. 9283). Also found in brackish water and occasionally ascends rivers (Ref. 9283). Forms medium-sized to big schools, but large adults may be solitary (Ref. 9283). Juveniles are often found in river estuaries (Ref. 9283). Feeds mainly on fishes, but also takes shrimps and other invertebrates (Ref. 9283). Often makes a grunting sound when captured (Ref. 9283). Marketed fresh, frozen, smoked and salted or dried; also utilized as fishmeal and a source of oil (Ref. 9283).
- Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann 1983 A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=2850&speccode=2592
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