Found in coastal and estuarine waters to depths of at least 110 m (Ref. 4281); on sand, mud and rough bottoms. Common amongst algae and eel-grass (Zostera) (Refs. 4146, 6733, 88187). Feeds mainly on small crustaceans (Ref. 85544).
- Dawson, C.E. 1986 Syngnathidae. p. 628-639. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Volume 2. Unesco, Paris. (Ref. 6733) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=6733&speccode=67
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