Eastern Atlantic: southern Biscay to Gibraltar, and also the Mediterranean and Black seas. Introduced and became established in the former USSR. In Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).
- Dawson, C.E. 1986 Syngnathidae. p. 628-639. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Volume 2. Unesco, Paris. (Ref. 6733)
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