Occurs in coastal waters to about 800 km or more from the shore, forming dense schools at about 30 to 90 m depth in summer, but down to 100 to 200 m during winter. Feeds as juveniles on zooplankton, but with phytoplankton becoming increasingly important. Spawns throughout the year, most intensely and close to shore in October or November and again in May or June but less intensely and more offshore. Exhibits north-south and near shore-offshore migrations. During winter as the most favorable feeding period for larvae which occurs in the continental shelf in the extreme south of Brazil (Ref. 53892). Consumed fresh or canned (Ref. 4931).Typical size 7-13 cm SL (Ref. 47377).
- Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana 1988 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=189&speccode=4
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