Inshore in summer, but at least some moving out into deeper waters from October (Mississippi delta area), although adults have been recorded near the shore in winter (Gulf of Florida). Feeds in dense schools as filter-feeders, but probably also feeds at bottom because of the presence of mud in the stomach.
- Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=188&speccode=24