Occurs primarily in estuaries and lagoons, but also found in lakes and rivers. Entire life cycle is completed in the estuary (Ref. 32693). Can tolerate salinities under 4 ppt and of up to 52.6 ppt (Ref. 32693). Breeds throughout the year with a peak in spring and early summer. Maturity may be attained within the first or second year and an age of up to 5 or 6 years is recorded. Feeds chiefly on zooplankton by filtering or selecting individual organisms from the water column (Ref. 7248). Utilized fresh or dried and salted (Ref. 12484).
- Skelton, P.H. 1993 A complete guide to the freshwater fishes of southern Africa. Southern Book Publishers. 388 p. (Ref. 7248)
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