In South America it is caught down to depths of about 40 m, in summer at 16 to 23 C, in winter at 10 to 18 C. Forms large schools in the Peru current. Likewise in North America, it forms large schools, up to 10 million individuals; it is migratory with a definite northward movement between California and British Columbia waters in summer and return in autumn, winter. Zooplankton and phytoplankton feeder. Food items of larvae and early juveniles consist of copepods and larvaceans (Ref. 32837). Young fish feeds on zooplankton such as copepods and adults on phytoplankton (Ref. 39882). Employs both filter- and particulate-feeding modes on phytoplankton and zooplankton (Ref. 42392).
Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)