A euryhaline species (Ref. 12743). Juveniles and young adults occur in mangrove estuaries, the lower reaches of freshwater streams (Ref. 30573, 48635, 44894) and tidal creeks (Ref. 44894). Adults are often found in groups around coral reefs (Ref. 9710). Eventually migrate offshore to deeper reef areas, sometimes penetrating to depths in excess of 100 m. Mainly nocturnal, this species feeds mostly on fishes and crustaceans. Excellent food fish (Ref. 5484, 44894). An important market species throughout the Indo-Pacific region, but never found in large quantities. A good aquaculture species because it doesnt get rancid easily when frozen (Ref. 47992). It commands a good export market price with no limit on body size (Ref. 47992). No reported damaging diseases (Ref. 47992). Found in Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). Max length is 104 cm, max weight 14.5 kg and max age 39 years for specimens from the east coast of Australia (pers. comm., Andrew McDougall, 2007).
- Allen, G.R. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
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