Found in areas close to the sea bed (Ref. 6390). Generally solitary. Feeds mainly on schooling bony fishes, occasionally on cephalopods and crustaceans (Ref. 27121). Reproduction takes place at the end of winter and at the start of spring in the northeastern Atlantic, earlier in the Mediterranean. Eggs are pelagic, maturity reached at 4 years (Ref. 36731). Sold fresh (Ref. 9563) and frozen (Ref. 9988). Can be steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). The flesh is excellent but is utilized little in West Africa (Ref. 5377).
- Karrer, C. and A. Post 1990 Zeidae. p. 631-633. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6953)
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