Inhabit algal zone or eel-grass (Zostera) (Ref. 6733). Adults spawn in May - August . Feed on small crustaceans and fish fry (Ref. 35388). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Consistent paternity is ensured despite brooding of embryos on the outside the male's body. Events of cuckoldry by sneaker males is ruled out through genetic paternity analyses based on molecular markers (Ref. 81011). Each male carries eggs from a single female but females may deposit eggs on several brooding pouches (Ref. 81011).
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