Indo-Pacific: Red Sea south to Durban, South Africa (Ref. 4420) and east to the Marquesas and Society islands, north to southern Japan, south to the southern Great Barrier Reef in Australia and New Caledonia.
- Matsuura, K. 2001 Balistidae. Triggerfishes. p. 3911-3928. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9770)
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