reef-associated; brackish; marine; depth range 0 - 53 m (Ref. 13608), usually ? - 4 m (Ref. 55205)
- Uyeno, T., K. Matsuura and E. Fujii (eds.) 1983 Fishes trawled off Suriname and French Guiana. Japan Marine Fishery Resource Research Center, Tokyo, Japan. 519 p. (Ref. 13608)
- Florida Museum of Natural History 2005 Biological profiles: southern stingray. Retrieved on 26 August 2005, from www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/Gallery/Descript/SouthernStingray/SouthernStingray.html. Ichthyology at the Florida Museum of Natural History: Education-Biological Profiles. FLMNH, University of Florida. (Ref. 55205)
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