Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA to Santa Catarina, Brazil (Ref. 57756). Replaced by Sphoeroides marmoratus in the eastern Atlantic (P. Wirtz, pers. comm. 10/04).
- Shipp, R.L. 1978 Tetraodontidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. West Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). volume 5. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3821)
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