There are anadromous, lacustrine and resident forms. At the sea, it occurs along coasts at depths of up to 50 m. Undertakes migration to hill streams. Resident part of populations live in streams and uppermost reaches with fast current, cold clear water and stone or gravel bottom. Spawns in upper reaches with fast current. Spawns in October-January. Parrs live in rivers and streams for 2-4 years, then smoltify and migrate to sea or mature in freshwater. Spends 2-4 years in the sea. Parrs and resident adults feed on aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates. Anadromous and large lacustrine individuals prey mostly on fish and large crustaceans. Anadromous individuals feed while in rivers. Damming hinders most returning adults to reach spawning sites (Ref. 59043).
- Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof 2007 Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)
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