South America: Amazon and Essequibo River basins.
- Sabaj, M.H. and C.J. Ferraris Jr. 2003 Doradidae (Thorny catfishes). p. 456-469. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 37054)
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