Inhabits cold streams and rivers in montane and piedmont landscapes with temperature usually not rising above 15° C during summer (Ref. 59043). Occurs over sandy and gravelly bottoms of running or standing clean and cold waters in the upper courses of Alpine rivers and glacial lakes (Ref. 12291). Feeds on a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates, shifting to fish diet when adult. Spawns in gravel of rivers and streams with swift water (0.4-0.5 m/s) at moderate depth (0.6-0.8 m). Lives up to at least 10 years. Threatened due to hybridization with introduced Salmo trutta and Salmo cenerinus, pollution, overfishing and river regulation. Only a few pure populations remain and stocking of pure strains has improved the situation. Conservation status is under least concern category, but might return to a threatened category if conservation measures end (Ref. 59043).
- Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof 2007 Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)
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