Inhabits moderate flowing waters of the middle and upper river valleys. Occurs in small groups, usually 10-30, staying relatively close to large rock formations.
- Conkel, D. 1993 Cichlids of North and Central America. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., USA. (Ref. 7335) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=7335&speccode=28234
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