Occur in the sea, mostly close to shores and forages also in estuaries. This species is semi-anadromous and non-anadromous, rarely landlocked in reservoirs. Adults and juveniles feed on invertebrates, algae, detritus, plant material, and small fishes, while larvae prey on zooplankton and small benthic invertebrates. Spawn in lowland streams and rivers on sand-gravel bottom, usually in strong current. Undertake migration to uppermost tributaries of rivers. Non-anadromous populations begin to migrate during late summer-autumn and spawn following spring, but some enter rivers in early spring and spawn same year. Migration by non-anadromous populations takes place just before spawning to upper stretches of tributaries or spawn in lakes and reservoirs on sand to mud bottom (Ref. 59043).
- Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof 2007 Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)
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