Inhabits gravel or sand bottoms around shallow reefs (Ref. 559); muddy estuaries and near mangroves, tolerating brackish waters (Ref. 48635). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205).
- Lourie, S.A., A.C.J. Vincent and H.J. Hall 1999 Seahorses: an identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, London. 214 p. (Ref. 30915)
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