Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 10.6-12.0 cm long and 7.54-7.8 cm wide (Ref. 41253, 41249, 41250, 41298). Depth range given by H. Ishihara (pers.comm. 07/07).
- Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino 1984 The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=559&speccode=7
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