Found in muddy bays and banks and on coral reefs from close inshore to 110 m depth (Ref. 9862). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Caught in bottom trawls, gillnets, seines, and fish traps (Ref. 9862, Ref.58048). Utilized for its meat and cartilage (possibly used as "filler" in shark fin soups as with other large eagle rays) (Ref.58048).
- Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens 1994 Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=6871&speccode=5891
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