Occurs in aggregations over soft bottoms of the inner continental shelf, often near coral reefs (Ref. 9840). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Size at birth at about 55 cm WD (Ref. 6871). Common catch of the demersal tangle net, bottom trawl and, to a lesser extend, longline fisheries. Utilized for its meat, skin (high value) and cartilage (Ref.58048). By-catch of prawn trawlers (Ref. 6871).
- Mould, B. 1994 A world list of rays. The scientific nomenclature and distribution of the recent Batoidea (Batoidea, Elasmobranchii, Chondrichthyes). University of Nottingham, [UK]. 82 p. (Ref. 8630) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=8630&speccode=7609
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