Western Central Atlantic: Florida, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and along the coast of central America to Panama and Venezuela. Also known from the Bahamas and the Antilles.
- Smith-Vaniz, W.F., B.B. Collette and B.E. Luckhurst 1999 Fishes of Bermuda: history, zoogeography, annotated checklist, and identification keys. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists Special Publication No. 4. 424 p. (Ref. 35505) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=35505&speccode=60348
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