South America: Atlantic versant rivers from Tramandaí River drainage in Brazil to the Colorado River in Argentina, including the lower Paraná and Uruguay River basins, and Laguna dos Patos drainage. Introduced in Pacific versant rivers of Chile, including Choapa and Quilimari Rivers, Estero Quintero, Estero Catapilco, Estero Casablanca, and Lake Peñuelas.
- Malabarba, L.R. 2003 Subfamily Cheirodontinae (Characins, tetras). p. 215-221. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 37055)
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