Occur in medium to large-sized rivers and enters flooded fields (Ref. 12975). Found on solid surfaces in flowing waters. Mostly herbivorous, feed largely on algae, periphyton and phytoplankton, but also take insect larvae or zooplankton. In current, they hold onto fixed objects with their sucker-like mouth. For breathing, water is pumped into the gill cavity through a small spiracle and across the gills for gas exchange. Large fish are sold in the markets, smaller ones are used to make prahoc (Ref. 12693). Aquarium keeping: needs plant feed; adults territorial; in groups of 5 or more individuals; minimum aquarium size 60 cm (Ref. 51539).
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