Adults are found in rivers, lakes and reservoirs, preferring fast-flowing waters of rapids and races and usually forming aggregations near the surface. Usually found below rapids and weirs (Ref. 44894). Feed on aquatic insects, mollusks, earthworms and plants. Temp.: 2-37°C. Maturity: F, 3 y and 34 cm SL; M, 23.3 cm SL. Spawning: summer (Nov.-Jan., 23-30°C water temp.), effect upstream migration. Fecundity: 500000 eggs per 1.8kg. Eggs: pelagic, 2.7-2.8 mm diameter. Hatching: 30 hrs at 26-27°C. Larvae: 3.6 mm at hatching. Eggs are guarded and fanned by the male parent (Ref. 205). A good angling and food fish which has been increasingly utilized as an aquaculture species in farm dams throughout Australia (Ref. 44894).