Scale-eaters (Ref. 12371). Scale-eating behavior was suggested to originate from modified predation and aggressive behavior (Ref. 28733). Mutilators feeding on larger fishes' scales (Ref. 40396). Ambushes or stalks, mainly with use of plant cover and territorial behavior defending the vicinity of submerged plant clumps (Ref. 40393).
- Val, A.L. and V.M.F. de Almeida-Val 1995 Fishes of the Amazon and their environment: physiological and biochemical aspect. Springer-Verlag Berlin, Germany. 245 p. (Ref. 12371) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=12371&speccode=12336