Found in extreme environments, from anoxic conditions (slack water zones bordered by dense vegetation) (Ref. 35381) to slightly turbid but free flowing streams (Ref. 11225). When its biotope becomes dry, it can move pout of the water, due to its ability to breathe intestinally, in order to find another aquatic environment (Ref. 35381). Feeds at night on fish, insects and plant matter (Ref. 7020). Juveniles feed on rotifers, in addition to the micro-crustaceans and aquatic insect larvae they find when digging into the substrate (Ref. 35381). During reproduction, the male's belly turns orange and its pectoral spines become longer and thicker. The male builds a bubble nest with some floating plants, strongly guarding it after the female lays down her eggs (up to 120) (Ref. 35381). Aquarium keeping: in groups of 5 or more individuals; minimum aquarium size 120 cm (Ref. 51539).
- Burgess, W.E. 1989 An atlas of freshwater and marine catfishes. A preliminary survey of the Siluriformes. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey (USA). 784 p. (Ref. 6868)