South America: High-altitude lakes and streams in the central Andean range (including Lakes Titicaca and Poopó), from Lake Junin in the north to Chilean region of Tarapacá in the south, spanning western Bolivia, Peru and northern Chile.
- de PÃnna, M.C.C. and W. Wosiacki 2003 Trichomycteridae (pencil or parasitic catfishes). p. 270-290. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 39970) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=39970&speccode=10405
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