Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania south to Angola; reported from central Namibia (Ref. 27121). Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico and Bahamas area; and across the Atlantic (20°N-10°S). One specimen known from the southwest Atlantic (25°27'S, 35°56'W).
- Gibbs, R.H. Jr. 1990 Astronesthidae. p. 300-307. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4465) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=4465&speccode=11694
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