Found in rivers and lakes. Adults feed on other freshwater fishes and even birds. Young are preyed on by introduced Micropterus salmoides. The flesh is edible; but the eggs are poisonous to eat.
- Lee, D.S., S.P. Platania and G.H. Burgess 1983 Atlas of North American freshwater fishes, 1983 supplement. Occasional Papers of the North Carolina Biological Survey no. 1983-6. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, N.C. 67 p. (Ref. 13498)
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