Dorsal spines (total): 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9 - 11; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 11 - 13
- Smith, C.L. 1997 National Audubon Society field guide to tropical marine fishes of the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Florida, the Bahamas, and Bermuda. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York. 720 p. (Ref. 26938)
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