Western Atlantic: North Carolina (USA), Bahamas and northern Gulf of Mexico to Brazil; throughout the West Indies and the Caribbean Sea (Ref. 3724). Eastern Atlantic: St. Paul's Rocks (Ref. 13121), Cape Verde, Principe, Ascension and St. Helena islands (Ref. 6537).
- Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
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