Inhabits shallow waters, being especially abundant over mud bottoms in mangrove-lined lagoons or creeks; larger individuals may also occur on vegetated sand grounds in marine areas. Enters fresh water in limestone regions (Ref. 7251). May occur in aggregations (Ref. 3722). Probably feeds on small benthic invertebrates (Ref. 3722). Marketed fresh but not highly esteemed (Ref. 3722).
- Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=7251&speccode=942
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