Forms schools in coastal waters, preferring waters of 24°C. Feeds on a variety of small planktonic invertebrates, fish larvae and phytoplankton. Breeds during the warm season (July-September). Juveniles and adults show clear north-south migrations in the Gabon-Congo-Angola sector of their range and also in the Sierra Leone-Mauritania sector, each area having nurseries. The movements are correlated with the seasonal upwelling. Marketed fresh, frozen or salted.
- Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
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