Schools in coastal waters from inshore to edge of shelf. Prefers clear saline water with a minimum temperature below 24°C. Juveniles tend to stay in nursery areas, but on maturity rejoin adult stocks offshore. Strongly migratory, often rising to surface at night and dispersing. Feeds mainly on zooplankton, especially copepods. Juveniles take phytoplankton (Ref. 27121). Breeds perhaps throughout the year, but with distinct peaks. In some areas there are two main spawning periods. Marketed fresh or canned (Ref. 188). Trematode found in intestinal tract (Ref. 37032).
- Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
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