Found in shallow coastal waters, usually over hard or sandy bottoms. Juveniles may be encountered in estuarine areas (Ref. 9626) and off sandy beaches (Ref. 5217). Feeds on small crabs, shrimps, fishes, and worms and other benthic crustaceans (Ref. 26338).
- Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=7251&speccode=942