Western Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951) to Maine to Florida, USA (possibly from Nova Scotia, Canada), along coasts of central and south America (Ref. 26938) to Uruguay, including Bermuda and Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 9626). Rare in Greater Antilles (Ref. 26938).
- Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
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