Adults inhabit continental waters and enters estuaries. Found in turbid waters over muddy bottoms. Males incubate eggs in the mouth (Ref. 205). Commonly captured from catwalks, bridges and piers, particularly in passes and inland waterways. Edible, but generally not consumed (Ref. 7251).
- Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
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