Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (USA), Bermuda, and the northern Gulf of Mexico to São Paulo, Brazil. Eastern Atlantic: Senegal.
- Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=7251&speccode=942
No one has provided updates yet.